Cusabio Virus & Bacteria Recombinants


The maintenance and manipulation of large genomes of DNA and RNA viruses had presented an obstacle to virological research. BAC vectors provided a solution to both problems as they can harbour large DNA sequences and can be efficiently modified using well-established mutagenesis techniques in Escherichia coli. Numerous herpesvirus and poxvirus DNA virus genomes were cloned into mini-F vectors.

Furthermore, several reverse genetic systems could be established for RNA viruses, such as members of Coronaviridae and Flaviviridae, based on BAC constructs. Transfection into susceptible eukaryotic cells of cloned viral DNA such as BAC allows reconstitution of recombinant viruses and bacteria. In this paper, we provide an overview of strategies that can be used for the generation of BAC vectors from viruses and also on systems that are currently available for various virus species.

In addition, we address common mutagenesis techniques that allow modification of BACs from single nucleotide substitutions to deletion of viral genes or insertion of foreign sequences. Finally, we review the reconstitution of viruses from BAC vectors and the removal of bacterial sequences from the virus genome during this process.

Cosmid-based approach

An alternative strategy often used for the generation of BACs from cell-associated viruses uses cosmid vectors to initially maintain overlapping parts of the DNA virus genome. The mini-F is subsequently inserted into one of the cosmids by ligation or homologous recombination in E. coli. Transfection of the overlapping cosmids into eukaryotic cells results in recombination between homologous sequences and reconstitution of infectious viruses.

During the process, the cosmid containing the mini-F cassette is incorporated into the virus genome, all resulting viruses harbour mini-F, and no laborious selection steps are required to obtain recombinant clones. As described above, circular virus DNA is isolated and transformed into E. coli and clones are analyzed for the integrity of the virus genomes they contain.

In vitro ligation

Recently, it has been shown that the mini-F replicon can be inserted into herpesvirus genomes by direct ligation. For this purpose, concatemeric virus DNA is isolated from herpes virus-infected cells and cleaved with a restriction enzyme that cuts only at a single locus within the virus genome. The resulting full-length viral genome is then ligated with a linearized mini-F vector containing compatible DNA ends. To prevent ligation of mini-F with cellular fragments, restriction enzymes that recognize an interrupted palindrome and allow the generation of desired directional sticky ends such as SfiI or BstXI can be used.

This strategy has been successfully applied to the generation of a BAC system for human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A). There are, however, several drawbacks to this method. First, the strategy requires a fully sequenced virus genome to determine potential restriction sites that can be used for the ligation procedure. Second, many virus genomes do not possess a single restriction site that is suitable for the approach.

Third, the mini-F insertion site is limited to the location of the single restriction site. Insertion into open reading frames (ORFs) or promoters of the virus genome can affect or abrogate the infectivity of BAC-derived viruses. Last but not least, the ligation and transformation procedures for large BAC vectors are very inefficient, making cloning attempts difficult.

Poxvirus Strategy

As described in Section 2.1, the cellular recombination machinery in mammalian cells can facilitate the insertion of mini-F sequences into the poxvirus genome. However, unlike herpesviruses, poxviruses do not produce a circular shape of the virus genome during replication. This poses a major obstacle to the transfer of recombinant poxvirus constructs to E. coli. To overcome the problem, infected cells are treated with isatin-β-thiosemicarbazone which promotes the accumulation of unresolved genomic concatemers.

For the generation of some poxvirus BAC clones, it was sufficient to transform E. coli with concatemeric DNA, a procedure that probably resulted in a recombination event that allowed circularization of the replicon. Alternatively, the isolated poxvirus DNA was circularized prior to E. coli transformation using the Cre/loxP or Flp/FRT recombination system.


Since the establishment of the first BAC system in 1997, BAC technology has contributed substantially to our understanding of the life cycle of large DNA and RNA viruses. Various techniques have been developed that facilitate the insertion of mini-F sequences into the virus genome. The methods enabled the generation of BAC systems for a plethora of virus species, including members of the Herpesvirales, Poxviridae, Coronaviridae, and Flaviviridae. The well-established mutagenesis techniques described herein facilitate site-specific manipulation of the virus genome in E. coli.

Various strategies can be used to introduce any desired modification, including deletions of viral sequences or insertions of foreign sequences. Reconstitution of recombinant viruses can be achieved by transfecting purified BAC DNA into susceptible mammalian cells, while in some cases additional helper viruses or expression vectors are required in this process. Finally, several techniques have been established that allow the excision of mini-F sequences from virus genomes without leaving behind an unwanted sequence.

Cusabio Others Recombinants


We Other Utopians is the first book to explore recombinant DNA/genome editing issues based on ethnographic research in the post-communist context. The book focuses on the topics of human DNA editing and genome repair at two levels. First, inspired by texts that analyze the concept of life and the body in general, it works conceptually and analytically with various approaches to designed life and incarnations from the perspective of anthropology, sociology, and science and technology studies.

Second, it presents an analysis of artificial life and biotechnological achievements in specific technologies: genome editing, other recombinant DNA and biological computing. The book explores the topic of genome editing based on ethnographic research carried out in a biochemical laboratory in the Czech Republic. The fieldwork was carried out between 2017 and 2019, mainly in a laboratory focused on DNA damage and genomic risk of complex diseases or genetic vulnerabilities such as breast cancer, infertility and aging.

Recombinant DNA is understood here as the exchange of DNA strands to produce and design new arrangements of nucleotide sequences to cure or improve human bodies and health in the future. The book examines various economies of hope, hype, expectations, the politics and poetics of false promises and better or worse predictions from the standpoint of sociology, anthropology, and science and technology studies.

Linked gene recombinants are those combinations of genes that are not found in the parents.

  • Recombinants are produced as a result of crossing over of genetic material during prophase I of meiosis.
  • If linked genes are separated by a chiasm, there will be an allele exchange between non-sister chromatids.
  • This creates new combinations of alleles that are different from the parent.

The frequency of recombinant phenotypes within a population will normally be less than that of non-recombinant phenotypes.

  • This is because crossing over is a random process and chiasmata do not form in the same places with each meiotic division.

The relative frequency of recombinant phenotypes will depend on the distance between linked genes.

  • The frequency of recombination between two linked genes will be higher when the genes are further apart on the chromosome.
  • This is because there are more possible locations where a chiasm could form between genes.

Cusabio N-terminal 10xHis-tagged Recombinant

Manufacturer/trade name: Novagen®

Quality level: 400

Storage condition: do not freeze

Sent in: environment

Storage temperature: 2-8°C

General description

Ni-NTA His•Bind resin is high-performance Ni2+-loaded agarose used for the rapid, one-step purification of proteins containing an N-terminal 10x His•Tagged recombinant sequence by metal chelation chromatography. NTA chemistry minimizes metal leaching during purification and is compatible with 10 mM β-mercaptoethanol or 1 mM tris(hydroxypropyl)phosphine (THP) for disulfide bond reduction. Ni-NTA His•Bind resin has a binding capacity of 5 to 10 mg of His•Tag fusion protein per ml of resin. Supplied as a 50% suspension; quantity/package is based on the amount of settled resin.


  • 10 ml in plastic ampoule
  • 100, 25, 500 ml in a glass bottle


Toxicity: Flammable (J)

Other notes

Due to the nature of the hazardous materials in this shipment, additional shipping charges may apply to your order. Certain sizes may be exempt from additional shipping charges for hazardous materials. Contact your local sales office for more information on these charges.

Legal information

  • HIS-BIND is a registered trademark of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany
  • NOVAGEN is a registered trademark of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany



Targeting the IS6110 and mtp40 genes for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), the PaxView TB/NTM MPCR-ULFA Kit is a novel tool that replaces gel electrophoresis with universal lateral flow assays. The sensitivity and specificity of this method were compared to those of established methodologies using clinical isolates from Indonesia. In this study, 148 sputum specimens isolated from suspected tuberculosis (TB) carriers were examined to evaluate the performance of the PaxView TB/NTM MPCR-ULFA Kit compared to smear microscopy and the Xpert MTB/RIF assay.

Of 148 cases, the rate of positive samples for TB evaluated by different methods was 18.2% (27/148; 95% CI 11.9–24.4) for smear microscopy, 20.3% (30/148 95% CI 13.8–26.8) for the Xpert MTB/RIF and 34.5% (51/148; 95% CI 26.8–42.1) for the PaxView TB/NTM MPCR Kit- ULFA. Twenty sputum samples from healthy subjects were also tested, all of which returned negative results across the three diagnostic tools examined in this paper. Compared to Xpert MTB/RIF, the PaxView TB/NTM MPCR-ULFA Kit was found to have a sensitivity of 96.7% (29/30; 95% CI 90.3-100).

In addition, the PaxView TB/NTM MPCR-ULFA Kit detected 18.6% (22/118, 95% CI 11.6–25.6) of Xpert MTB/RIF MTB negative samples and 20.7% (25/121, 95% CI 13.5–27.9) of smear microscopy negative samples as positive for MTB. The PaxView TB/NTM MPCR-ULFA Kit could be a useful molecular diagnostic tool to identify MTB in clinical samples in resource-limited countries, as this procedure is more cost-effective and sensitive than Xpert MTB/RIF, and more convenient than Xpert MTB/RIF. conventional. PCR gel electrophoresis methods.

Product name: PaxView TB/NTM MPCR-ULFA Kit

Certification: CE

Category: Medical Test Kit


Keywords: ivd, PCR, TB, molecule diagnostics

Unit size:

Brand: PaxView

Unit Weight: 320 g

Origin: South Korea

Stock: 100

Type of supply: Available

HS Code: 382200

Product Information

The PaxView TB/NTM MPCR-ULFA Kit adopts PaxGenBio’s proprietary technology that uses the patented universal probe linked to the PCR primer that amplifies a target gene from clinical samples and allows visual inspection of DNA-DNA hybridization between the universal probe at one end of the PCR products and their complementary sequence.

When loaded onto the sample pad in a ULFA cartridge, the PCR products move over the nitrocellulose membrane along with running buffer and hybridize with complementary DNA fragments immobilized on specific regions of the nitrocellulose membrane.

Finally, it is easy to visually verify the results within 10 to 15 minutes after adding the PCR products. PaxView TB / NTM MPCR-ULFA Kit is a new molecular diagnostic technology that uses PaxGenBio’s patented MPCR-ULFA (Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction – Universal Lateral Flow Assay) technology and has an economical and convenient cost consisting of MPCR Kit and ULFA kit.

  • Simultaneous diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection.
  • Application of MPCR-ULFA (Multiplex PCR – Universal Lateral Flow Assay), the patented technology owned by PaxGenBio
  • Amplify and detect specific genes, IS6110 or mtp40 for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rpoB gene for NTM
  • High sensitivity and specificity – Limit of detection (LoD); MTBC: 2 copies/μl, NTM: 10 copies/μl
  • All PCR equipment can be used
  • Simple and easy to use method
  • Visual check of results in 10~15 minutes, easy to use
  • Patent registered in the USA.

PaxView TB / NTM MPCR-ULFA Kit is an in vitro diagnostic kit designed to detect tuberculosis and non-tuberculosis by the PCR method. Amplifying and detecting specific genes, IS6110 and mtp40 from tuberculosis bacteria, and the rpoB gene in mycobacteria. This efficient diagnosis is possible for TB and non-tuberculous infections.

Molecular Standards


The usefulness of quantitative molecular diagnosis for patient management depends on the ability to relate patient results to previous results or to absolute values ​​in clinical practice guidelines. To do this, those results need to be comparable across time and methods, either by producing the same value across methods and test versions or by using reliable and stable conversions. Universally available standards and specific reference materials for quantitative molecular technologies are critical to this process, but they are few in number. This review describes the recent history in setting international standards for nucleic acid test development, the organizations involved in current efforts, and future issues and initiatives.

Characterization, Establishment and Replacement of the International Standards of the World Health Organization

The World Health Organization International Standards are prepared, characterized and established in accordance with “The World Health Organization Guidelines for the Preparation and Establishment of Reference Standards for Biological Substances”. The first version of this document was written in 1978. It was revised in 1986, 1990, and most recently in 2004 in a series of meetings with representatives from national and regional health departments, vaccine manufacturers, standards organizations, and diagnostic test manufacturers. It describes the general principles for the establishment of all biological reference materials of the World Health Organization, with a wide range of intended uses: mainly vaccine preparations and immunological and biological tests. The quantification of viral targets in molecular tests is recognized in the most recent revision.

The most widely used global standards for the calibration and characterization of quantitative molecular viral assays are the World Health Organization International Standards for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), HIV, and Hepatitis B Virus. The International Standard The World Health Organization (IS) for HCV was the first in the series and was established in 1997. It was a preparation of one unit of HCV genotype 1a high-titer plasma diluted in cryosupernatant and lyophilized. The preparation was tested with two other candidate materials in a global collaborative study in 22 laboratories during 1996. The study was conducted by the World Health Organization collaborating centre laboratory: the National Institute for Biological Standards and Controls (NIBSC) and the data was analyzed by this. in South Mimms, UK.

Methods examined included a variety of commercial and laboratory-developed assays using single, nested, or remunerated primers. Most of the data were generated by analyzing endpoint dilutions of the candidate standards using traditional (non-real-time) qualitative amplification assays, although quantitative data submitted by participants were included in the analysis. The first World Health Organization HCV SI (96/790) was assigned the value of 105 IU/mL (5 log10 IU/mL) lyophilized in 0.5 mL ampoules. The international unit is considered absolute and, in accordance with World Health Organization policies, there are no units of uncertainty associated with this or subsequent replacements. The IU of each biological preparation “has no other existence than in relation to the preparation that defines it”.

Efforts to Increase the Breadth and Depth of Standards for Quantitative Molecular Infectious Disease Testing

The traditional goal of international biological standards was to characterize vaccine preparations and establish the analytical sensitivity of assays used to detect blood product materials. This provides insight into why these materials are today single point references with no specification of recoverability when diluted to prepare quantitative standardization curves. Although the establishment of the first World Health Organization HCV IS was consistent with its intended uses, the World Health Organization and NIBSC have recognized the role that this and subsequent viral IS materials have played. in quantitative diagnosis.

A 2007 report from the World Health Organization Collaborating Centers for Biological Standards and Standardization outlines a 5-year strategic plan “to prioritize the development of World Health Organization reference biologicals for the control of clinical trials.” IVD [in vitro diagnostics] related to blood safety.” reiterating the safety of the blood supply as the primary goal. NIBSC leaders recognize that international standards are needed to standardize quantitative and qualitative molecular infectious disease assays for patient testing and are proceeding to address this area.

Recommendations for desired specifications of standards for quantitative molecular diagnostics have been communicated to the World Health Organization through consultation meetings with the organization and through working groups such as the Standardization of Genome Amplification Techniques ( SAGAT). The most persistent group in the ongoing discussion of performance specifications for international quantitative molecular diagnostic standards has been the Industry Liaison Committee (ILC), an organization of molecular assay manufacturers working towards the availability of universally accepted reference standards.

The specific interest of this group has been standards to serve the development of quantitative molecular diagnostic assays used in patient testing. In 1998, 2000 and 2002 ILC and World Health Organization sponsored meetings were convened with the World Health Organization, the US Food and Drug Administration and other standards organizations to discuss this issue. In addition, ILC has regularly presented at SAGAT meetings. Specifications discussed at these meetings included the establishment of reference materials similar to clinical samples, quantification by methods independent of current diagnostic test methods, preparations with adequate concentrations to assess the entire expected clinical range, dilution protocols, and expectations of published dilution recovery, and stability tests. (2006).

SARS-CoV-2 (N, ORF1a, RdRp) Detection Kit

Real-time RT-PCR test for the qualitative detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acids in various types of samples.

Product description

SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the β genus. COVID-19 is an acute respiratory infectious disease. People are generally susceptible. Currently, SARS-CoV-2 infected patients are the main source of infection; asymptomatic infected persons can also be an infectious source. According to current epidemiological research, the incubation period is 1-14 days, mostly 3-7 days. The main manifestations include fever, fatigue and dry cough. Nasal congestion, runny nose, sore throat, myalgia, and diarrhoea are found in some cases.

This kit is used for the in vitro qualitative detection of SARS-CoV-2 in respiratory specimens, including oropharyngeal swabs, sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and nasopharyngeal swabs. The primer sets and the FAM-labeled probe are designed for the specific detection of the ORF1ab gene of SARS-CoV-2, the VIC-labelled probe for the N gene of SARS-CoV-2. The human RNase P gene extracted simultaneously with the test sample provides an internal control to validate the nucleic acid extraction procedure and the integrity of the reagent. The probe directed to the human RNase P gene is labelled with CY5.


  • Hot Start PCR: high specificity
  • Detection Target: N and ORF1a genes
  • OneStep PCR: multiple targets in a single reaction
  • Reliable system: RNase P internal control
  • Easy to use master mix – simply add template and primer/probe mix
  • Fast detection: 75-minute amplification
  • Sample Type: Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL), Nasopharyngeal, Oropharyngeal, Nasal, Sputum

The kit is used for the in vitro qualitative detection of the 2019-nCoV novel coronavirus ORF1ab/N/S gene in respiratory specimens, including oropharyngeal swabs, nasopharyngeal swabs, sputum, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and to perform mutation typing in N501Y.

The kit adopts the ARMS method, takes the S gene of the new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) as the target region, designs the specific primers and probes of N501Y, the FAM-tagged probe is designed for the specific detection of the VIC-tagged probe of wild type for mutant type, ROX-labeled probe for ORF1ab and N gene, CY5-labeled probe for human RNase P gene as an internal control. Mutation typing in N501Y is performed according to the difference (⊿ Ct) between the mutant Ct value (VIC channel) and the wild-type Ct value (FAM channel) reported by the PCR instrument.

Compatible Instruments:

  • Applied BiosystemsTM 7500 Rapid Real-Time PCR System
  • Applied BiosystemsTM 7500 Real-Time PCR System
  • Bio-Rad CFX96TM IVD Real-Time PCR System
  • QuantStudioTM 5 real-time PCR system
  • Possibility of adaptation to other thermal cyclers

FLUXERGY Chronic Kidney Panel

How can I know if I have kidney disease?

Early kidney disease usually does not have any symptoms. Tests are the only way to know how well your kidneys are working. Get checked for kidney disease if you have

  • diabetes
  • high blood pressure
  • heart disease
  • family history of kidney failure

If you have diabetes, get checked every year. If you have high blood pressure, heart disease, or a family history of kidney failure, talk to your health care provider about how often you should be tested. The sooner you know you have kidney disease, the sooner you can get treatment to help protect your kidneys.

What tests do doctors use to diagnose and monitor kidney disease?

To check for kidney disease, health care providers use:

  • a blood test that checks how well your kidneys are filtering your blood, called GFR. GFR stands for glomerular filtration rate.
  • a urine test to check for albumin. Albumin is a protein that can pass into the urine when the kidneys are damaged.

If you have kidney disease, your healthcare provider will use the same two tests to help monitor your kidney disease and make sure your treatment plan is working.

Blood test for GFR

Your health care provider will use a blood test to check your kidney function. The test results mean the following:

  • a GFR of 60 or more is in the normal range. Ask your health care provider when your GFR should be rechecked.
  • a GFR of less than 60 may mean you have kidney disease. Talk to your health care provider about how to keep your kidneys healthy at this level.
  • a GFR of 15 or less is called kidney failure. Most people below this level need dialysis or a kidney transplant. Talk to your health care provider about your treatment options.

Creatinine. Creatinine is a waste product from the normal breakdown of muscles in your body. Your kidneys remove creatinine from your blood. Providers use the amount of creatinine in your blood to estimate your GFR. As kidney disease worsens, the creatinine level rises.

Urine test for albumin

If you are at risk for kidney disease, your provider may check your urine for albumin. Albumin is a protein found in the blood. A healthy kidney does not allow albumin to pass into the urine. A damaged kidney leaks some albumin into the urine. The less albumin in the urine, the better. Having albumin in the urine is called albuminuria.

A health care provider can check for albumin in the urine in two ways:

Albumin dipstick test. A provider uses a urine sample to look for albumin in your urine. The urine sample is collected in a container at a health care provider’s office or laboratory. For the test, a provider places a strip of chemically treated paper, called a dipstick, into the urine. The test strip changes colour if albumin is present in the urine.

Urine albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR). This test measures and compares the amount of albumin to the amount of creatinine in your urine sample. Providers use your UACR to estimate how much albumin you would pass into your urine over 24 hours. A urine albumin result of:

  • 30 mg/g or less is normal
  • more than 30 mg/g may be a sign of kidney disease

If you have albumin in your urine, your provider may want you to repeat the urine test one or two more times to confirm the results. Talk to your carrier about what your specific numbers mean to you.

If you have kidney disease, measuring albumin in your urine helps your provider know which treatment is best for you. A urine albumin level that stays the same or decreases may mean that treatments are working.

How do I know if my kidney disease is getting worse?

You can track your test results (PDF, 262KB) over time. You can tell your treatments are working if your

  • GFR stays the same
  • albumin in the urine stays the same or decreases

Your health care provider will work with you to manage your kidney disease.

COVID-19 Ag Home Test

Diagnosis Testing

We believe that COVID testing should be more widely available, in more places, where people work, live and study. Today we are pleased to say that our widely used, credit card-sized, instrument-free BinaxNOW Rapid Test has received Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). ) for home use with a prescription through a virtually guided online service.

The BinaxNOW test, which provides results in minutes and detects the virus early in the disease, when people are most infectious, will be used with an online service, provided by eMed, that helps guide people through the testing process. It’s a significant advance from the other testing options where people collect their own samples without expert guidance and then package up the sample, mail it to a lab and wait a couple of days or more for results.

Just as important, our home testing will be affordable, accessible, and ensure confidence in the home testing process. Costing $25 through eMed (plus shipping), BinaxNOW is the lowest price available for an at-home COVID-19 testing service. And our test, in conjunction with the NOVICA app, provides proof of a valid test result through a digitally authenticated NOVICA pass and helps preserve the integrity of reports so public health officials get critical real-time data on the disease and how it is spreading during the pandemic. The new EUA comes just three months after our original launch of BinaxNOW and furthers our vision, to decentralize and democratize testing, by bringing testing to more people in more places to help slow the spread of the virus.

“As the pandemic has evolved, the need for rapid testing has only grown. Unfortunately, we are still hearing that many people are not able to access testing as quickly as they need it,” said Robert B. Ford, president and chief executive officer. Abbott executive. official. “That’s why Abbott is bringing our BinaxNOW rapid test and NOVICA platform into homes through this partnership with eMed, allowing us to maintain the integrity of the testing process, get even closer to the people who need testing, and help provide the confidence we need to help. return to live with a little more normality”.

Abbott and eMED expect to deliver and manage 30 million BinaxNOW tests in the first quarter of 2021, with an additional 90 million in the second quarter. Since launching BinaxNOW in August, Abbott has increased capacity to 50 million tests per month at its US facilities. Those tests are currently being distributed through the federal government. Abbott is expanding further so more people have access to testing.

Is that how it works

  • A person can access the eMed service through Abbott’s NOVICA app, available in English and Spanish, which can be downloaded from the Apple and Android app stores.
  • Once eligibility requirements are met, the test kit is shipped directly to the home user or to a collection location, allowing a person to remain in isolation until their status is known.
  • When a BinaxNOW test kit arrives at home, the home user logs into the eMed portal for their guided test session. They can expect results in about 20 minutes through NOVICA, where a digital pass appears with a QR code that can be scanned by organizations that accept NOVICA.
  • eMed’s certified guide is available to answer questions throughout the testing process to ensure a worry-free testing experience for the home user. eMed records the results and shares them with public health authorities so they can monitor and control the spread of the virus.

Adding to a robust portfolio

We have developed eight COVID-19 tests in the US that have received the US. Each of our test types—antigen, molecular, and serology—play a role in helping us weather the pandemic and give people greater confidence to return to school, work, and other things they love.

Expanding our BinaxNOW test for home use could help slow transmission of the virus and alleviate some testing burdens (such as lack of transportation and inconvenient testing times). By the end of 2020, we will have shipped over 300 million COVID-19 tests globally across all of our different platforms.

“We know that most people are still not completely comfortable with home testing from recent consumer research, so the eMed service is designed to provide a seamless and reliable experience,” said Chris Scoggins, Senior Vice President of Rapid Diagnostics at Abad. “The simplicity and convenience of home testing and the ability to display your results on the NOVICA app, along with vaccinations and other protective measures, will give us all a chance to have a semblance of normalcy and get back to our lives.”

Il processo di regressione testicolare influisce anche sulla fisiologia dell’epididimo del pipistrello Molossus molossus, sebbene con un ritardo nella risposta epididimale dovuto alla conservazione dello sperma

Responsabile della maturazione post-testicolare, della concentrazione, della protezione e della conservazione dello sperma, l’epididimo è un organo che può essere facilmente suddiviso in tre segmenti: caput, corpus e cauda. Ogni regione dell’epididimo mostra morfologia e funzioni numerous all’interno del processo di maturazione dello sperma. Nonostante la grande importanza di questo organo, gli studi sulla sua morfologia e sul controllo ormonale nei pipistrelli rimangono scarsi. Lo scopo di questo studio period quindi quello di analizzare morfologicamente l’epididimo del pipistrello Molossus molossus (Chiroptera: Molossidae), al effective di valutarne le variazioni morfologiche e morfometriche, nonché alcuni aspetti del suo controllo ormonale durante il ciclo riproduttivo annuale.

A tal effective, in questo studio sono stati utilizzati 60 maschi sessualmente adulti, comprendenti cinque campioni raccolti mensilmente per un anno per formare 12 gruppi campione. L’epididimo è stato sottoposto advert analisi morfologiche, morfometriche e immunoistochimiche. I risultati hanno dimostrato che i processi di regressione testicolare totale e recrudescenza posteriore subiti da M. molossus influiscono anche sulla fisiologia dell’epididimo, tuttavia, si osserva un ritardo nella risposta dell’epididimo dovuto alla conservazione degli spermatozoi. Simile advert altri mammiferi, l’epididimo di M. molossus ha una grande predominanza di cellule principali e basali.

Le variazioni stagionali dell’epididimo sembrano essere direttamente correlate alle precipitazioni e al fotoperiodo, ma non alla temperatura. Nel frattempo, la fisiologia dell’epididimo sembra essere regolata, almeno parzialmente, dall’espressione del recettore degli androgeni nelle cellule epiteliali, che ha effetti agonisti sulla proliferazione cellulare. Giovanni Maria Lancisi (1654-1720) è stato uno dei più importanti medici italiani dell’età moderna. Rimasto orfano di madre, trascorre i primi anni nella città di Orvieto; a 12 anni il padre lo riporta a Roma e lo iscrive a studiare medicina all’Università La Sapienza di Roma. La sua dedizione allo studio e al lavoro lo porta presto a ricoprire incarichi sempre più importanti. Nel giro di pochi anni la fama di Lancisi divenne story da essere nominato medico personale di tre papi.

In De Subitaneis Mortibus (1707), descrisse la fisiopatologia delle malattie cardiache, identificando la causa delle morti improvvise nelle anomalie strutturali del cuore, dei polmoni e del cervello. Ha scritto anche sulle localizzazioni cerebrali e ha discusso per primo i meccanismi fisiologici della formazione e dell’escrezione dell’urina. Nel 1717 Lancisi descrisse la patogenesi della malaria e la stretta correlazione tra la sua insorgenza e le acque paludose del fiume Tevere, proponendo il drenaggio delle paludi per debellare la malaria.

Effetto del condizionamento e dell’ipertermia fisiologica sul consumo di ossigeno mitocondriale del muscolo scheletrico canino

L’esercizio fisico spesso causa ipertermia del muscolo scheletrico, con probabile conseguente diminuzione dell’efficienza della respirazione mitocondriale. Abbiamo ipotizzato che il condizionamento atletico migliorerebbe la tolleranza mitocondriale all’ipertermia. Le biopsie del muscolo scheletrico sono state ottenute da 6 cani da slitta dell’Alaska in anestesia generale leggera prima e dopo un’intera stagione di condizionamento e corsa, e la respirazione delle fibre muscolari permeabilizzate è stata misurata a 38, 40, 42 e 44 ° C. Non c’period alcun effetto della temperatura sulla respirazione fosforilante e il condizionamento atletico ha aumentato la respirazione fosforilante massima del 19%.

La respirazione con perdite è aumentata e l’efficienza calcolata della fosforilazione ossidativa è diminuita con l’aumentare della temperatura di incubazione, e il condizionamento atletico ha portato a una maggiore respirazione con perdite e una minore efficienza calcolata della fosforilazione ossidativa a tutte le temperature. Condizionamento dell’aumento dell’espressione del muscolo scheletrico di percorsi di perdita mitocondriale putativi trasportatore di nucleotidi di adenina 1 e proteina di disaccoppiamento 3, entrambi correlati con l’entità della respirazione di perdita. Concludiamo che il condizionamento atletico negli atleti di resistenza canina d’élite si traduce in una maggiore capacità di perdita di protoni mitocondriali che potenzialmente riduce il potenziale massimo della membrana mitocondriale durante i periodi di elevata fosforilazione ossidativa.

Il processo di regressione testicolare influisce anche sulla fisiologia dell'epididimo del pipistrello Molossus molossus, sebbene con un ritardo nella risposta epididimale dovuto alla conservazione dello sperma

Regolazione delle emozioni di fronte alla perdita: come il distacco, la rivalutazione positiva e l’accettazione modellano le esperienze, la fisiologia e la percezione nella tarda età

Il modo in cui gli individui regolano le emozioni di fronte alla perdita ha importanti conseguenze per il benessere e la salute, ma sappiamo poco su quali strategie di regolazione delle emozioni sono più efficaci per gli anziani per i quali la perdita è onnipresente. Il presente studio di laboratorio ha esaminato gli effetti di tre strategie di regolazione delle emozioni (cioè distacco, rivalutazione positiva o accettazione in risposta a filmati che raffigurano la perdita) su esperienze emotive soggettive, fisiologia e percezioni del successo e della motivazione della regolazione delle emozioni negli anziani sani (N = 129, fascia di età = 64-83).

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I risultati hanno mostrato che, in primo luogo, il distacco diminuiva le esperienze emotive su tutta la linea; la rivalutazione positiva ha diminuito le esperienze emotive detrimental e aumentate; mentre l’accettazione non ha alterato le esperienze emotive. In secondo luogo, il distacco diminuiva l’eccitazione fisiologica (guidata dall’aumento dell’intervallo tra i battiti e dalla diminuzione della frequenza respiratoria) mentre la rivalutazione e l’accettazione constructive non alteravano l’eccitazione fisiologica rispetto alle show “simply watch”. Terzo, le persone si sentivano più di successo e disposte a fare il loro meglio quando implementavano l’accettazione, mentre si sentivano meno riuscite e meno disposte a fare il loro meglio per una rivalutazione positiva. Questi risultati illuminano discussioni di lunga knowledge su come gli individui possono regolare al meglio le emozioni di fronte alla perdita.


Fisiologia del ventricolo destro nel corso della vita

La causa più comune di insufficienza cardiaca negli Stati Uniti è la cardiopatia ischemica sinistra; di conseguenza, è stato fatto un grande lavoro per chiarire i meccanismi molecolari alla base delle patologie del ventricolo sinistro (LV) come modello generale di insufficienza cardiaca. Fino a poco tempo, poca attenzione è stata prestata al ventricolo destro (RV) e si è comunemente pensato che le proprietà meccaniche e biochimiche del VD fossero simili a quelle del VS. Tuttavia, le terapie utilizzate per trattare l’insufficienza del ventricolo sinistro spesso non riescono a migliorare la funzione ventricolare nell’insufficienza ventricolare, sottolineando la necessità di comprendere meglio le proprietà fisiologiche e fisiopatologiche uniche del ventricolo destro.

È importante sottolineare che gli stress emodinamici (come il sovraccarico di pressione) spesso sono alla base dell’insufficienza cardiaca destra differenziando ulteriormente l’insufficienza RV come unica dall’insufficienza LV. Esistono proprietà strutturali, meccaniche e biochimiche significative distintive del RV che influenzano la sua funzione ed è probabile che gli adattamenti del RV si verifichino in modo univoco per tutta la durata della vita. Abbiamo esaminato in precedenza il RV adulto rispetto al LV, ma non si conoscono differenze nel RV pediatrico o invecchiato. La considerazione di come la funzione RV è alterata in diversi stati patologici in un modo specifico per età può permetterci di definire la funzione RV in salute e, cosa importante, in risposta alla patologia.

Effetti dell’emendamento biochar e della riduzione dell’irrigazione sulla crescita, sulla fisiologia, sull’efficienza nell’uso dell’acqua e sull’assorbimento dei nutrienti del tabacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) su due diversi tipi di suolo

Biochar ha mostrato effetti benefici nella produzione agricola, ma gli effetti combinati di biochar e ridotta irrigazione sulla crescita delle colture e l’efficienza nell’uso dell’acqua (WUE) in diversi tipi di suolo non sono stati completamente esplorati. È stato condotto un esperimento in vaso a radice divisa per studiare gli effetti dell’aggiunta del 2% di legno tenero (SWB) e paglia di grano biochar (WSB) su crescita, fisiologia, WUE e assorbimento di sostanze nutritive delle piante di tabacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) coltivate in un Ferrosol e un Anthrosol, rispettivamente, sotto tre trattamenti di irrigazione. Le piante sono state irrigate giornalmente fino al 90% della capacità di ritenzione idrica (FI) o irrigate con il 70% del quantity di acqua utilizzata per FI all’intera zona delle radici (DI) o alternativamente alla metà della zona delle radici (PRD).

I risultati hanno mostrato che le piante coltivate advert Anthrosol possedevano maggiori tassi di cambio dei gasoline fogliari, biomassa secca e WUE mentre un contenuto di nutrienti inferiore rispetto a quelle coltivate in Ferrosol. Nonostante un effetto negativo sul contenuto di N della pianta e sulla WUE, l’aggiunta di WSB ha aumentato la capacità di trattenere l’acqua, di conseguenza migliorato lo scambio di gasoline fogliare, l’assorbimento di acqua, la biomassa e il contenuto di Ok con conseguente miglioramento della qualità delle foglie del tabacco come esemplificato da un aumento del contenuto di Ok delle foglie e un rapporto stechiometrico da N a Ok. più appropriato.

Tuttavia, questi effetti non erano evidenti dopo l’aggiunta di SWB. Inoltre, queste risposte all’aggiunta di biochar erano più forti in Ferrosol che in Anthrosol potrebbero essere affiliate al suo pH più basso. Rispetto a FI, PRD ha ridotto leggermente la velocità fotosintetica ma ha ridotto significativamente la conduttanza stomatica, la velocità di traspirazione e l’space fogliare, portando a un aumento significativo della WUE intrinseca, istantanea e della pianta. Inoltre, il PRD period superiore al DI nel migliorare la resa, WUE, assorbimento di N a uno stesso quantity di irrigazione. Si è concluso che WSB combinato con PRD potrebbe essere una pratica promettente per migliorare sinergicamente la resa, la qualità e la WUE del tabacco migliorando le proprietà idro-fisiche del suolo e la biodisponibilità dei nutrienti.

Fisiologia del ventricolo destro nel corso della vita

Trasformare l’istruzione di fisiologia medica dell’Università della California, Irvine nell’period della pandemia

All’Università della California, Irvine, School of Medicine (UCISOM), la pandemia COVID-19 sta accelerando la transizione dalle lezioni didattiche faccia a faccia alle piattaforme on-line. Le istituzioni a livello nazionale hanno scelto di trasferire le loro lezioni all’istruzione a distanza per il prossimo anno accademico autunno 2020. Il corso di Immunologia Medica pre-impiegato di UCISOM nella primavera del 2020 funge da modello per altri corsi di medicina per trasformare con successo i contenuti delle lezioni in presentazioni virtuali. Di conseguenza, in questa mini-revisione, esamineremo le sottili distinzioni tra RV e LV che vengono mantenute fisiologicamente per tutta la durata della vita ed evidenzieremo significative lacune nella nostra comprensione del RV pediatrico e dell’invecchiamento.

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Per aiutare a facilitare la transizione di successo su larga scala ai corsi on-line, l’UCI ha sviluppato il supporto istituzionale e ha implementato una borsa di studio della Divisione per l’eccellenza nell’insegnamento e l’innovazione (DTEI) e i programmi iMedEd per supportare gli educatori medici per tutta l’property. I moduli di e-learning sviluppati in precedenza per la fisiologia renale e acido-base servono come base per nuovi moduli di e-learning polmonari presso l’UCISOM. In preparazione per il nuovo anno accademico, in una collaborazione tra i docenti, gli studenti di medicina del secondo anno (MS2) con le migliori prestazioni di UCISOM e i borsisti DTEI hanno lavorato insieme durante l’property per la transizione del corso di fisiologia medica e fisiopatologia dell’UCISOM on-line.